Mat. 5: 18 ...till the heaven & earth pass away,

not one jot or tittle shall pass from the Torah till all be done.

New Moon Study

By G. Leyendecker


Shalom Brothers & Sisters (my commentary will be in green italics),

When we first came to the faith and observing the festivals and appointed times, we used the crescent. Everyone we knew was and we didn't know otherwise. We learned we are to be Bereans in our faith.

Pesach is a perfect example, we started out doing the seder and as we studied scriptures we realized that was wrong and corrected it. Learning much more, I might say, in the process.

We saw a study around 2003 that convinced us to start using the conjunction (Yerushalayim's) and have been using it ever since.

More recently I wanted to re-visit the crescent; mainly because our many close brothers & sisters start the month with the sighted crescent.

I wanted to be in alignment with them since we often celebrate the feasts with them.

I wanted to be a sighted moon/new month observer, so I sought out various studies and here are my findings:


Gen 1:14 And Elohim said, “Let lights come to be in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and appointed times, and for days and years,

Psa 104:19 He made the moon for appointed times; The sun knows its going down.

Jer 31:35 Thus saith YHWH, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances(H2708) of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; YHWH of hosts is his name:

 H2708 חקּה chûqqâh khook-kaw'

Feminine of H2706, and meaning substantially the same: - appointed, custom, manner, ordinance, site, statute.

Are we not told to use the sun, moon & stars for appointed times and seasons, days and years? 

How did they do it? Was it simply done by sight or did they calculate them?

They definitely used math for calculating weight, length, distance and various measures etc.

First, let's look at some of the controversial clues in scripture.

Psa 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed (keseh H3677), on our solemn feast day.

Some bibles translate keseh (H3677) as full moon, I'll show you why this is incorrect.


כּסה כּסא kese', keseh, keh'-seh, keh'-seh

Apparently from H3680; properly fulness or the full moon, that is, its festival: - (time) appointed.


Hebrew uses many words derived from the same root word... interestingly, at times the same Hebrew letters are used for kese' (H3677) and kasah (H3680) (Kaph-Samech-Hey); as you can see with these two words.



כּסה kâsâh, kaw-saw'

A primitive root; properly to plump, that is, fill up hollows; by implication to cover (for clothing or secrecy): - clad self, close, clothe, conceal, cover (self), (flee to) hide, overwhelm. Compare H3780.

From 119ministries (former sighted moon believers):

Those who state that it is to be translated as full moon, correctly cite the fact that there are only 3 literal feast days in Yah's Word, and two of which occur on the full moon, and none of which fall on the new moon as mentioned in verse 3.

However, if kece’ did mean a covered moon, that would be literal direct Scriptural evidence that the new moon is defined as the moon being in conjunction, completely dark, not a sliver or crescent.

 There are only two translation choices, full moon, or covered moon.

There is a serious problem with the full moon translation.

This would mean that we are to blow a shofar, at both the new moon, and the full moon.

I think we can all agree that the new moon is NOT a full moon...

The author of this Psalm states that it is a statute for Israel, and a law or Torah of Yahweh.

Here would be the question to those who believe it is a commandment to blow the shofar on the full moon…

Where do we find a commandment to blow a shofar on a full moon in the Torah?

It is nowhere to be found.

Some might refer to Numbers 10:10, but that only refers to the silver trumpets.

In Hebrew, there is a difference between the shofar trumpet (shofar) and the silver (khesef) trumpets (chatzotzera).

There is only one instance in which we are commanded to blow the shofar, and that is for the day of Trumpets.


Some people think Psalm 81 is about Pesach...


From Stan English COYahweh, Calhoun, GA:

One big problem with inferring that this is referring to Passover is that Passover is not a pilgrimage feast; though it is referred to as “chag” on one occasion in the Scripture. Nevertheless they believe that this is talking about the first month of the year.

I believe that my friends have failed to get the much bigger picture of what this Psalm is talking about. I also think that they are mistaken because they tend to think that blowing the shofar in the month of Abib is the law and right ruling for Ya’aqob and Yisra’el that this Psalm harkens back to.

I will tell you ahead of time that I believe this short little Psalm to be about much more! It is a call to celebration, a history lesson, a reminder about the covenant made at Sinai, and about the blessings and the cursings. If this Psalm is about a particular time, I believe that it is about the celebrations (plural) of the seventh month! The fact that this Psalm talks about coming out of Mitsrayim is somewhat consequential. After all; think about it; even the Festival of Booths, which is held in the seventh month, is about coming out of Mitsrayim.


Lev 23:42 'Dwell in booths for seven days; all who are native Yisra’elites dwell in booths,

Lev 23:43 so that your generations know (remember) that I made the children of Yisra’el dwell in booths when I brought them out of the land of Mitsrayim. I am YHWH your Elohim.' "

Some say that Israel purely relied on the moon (see Psalm 104:19) for their feast days, months etc.

So the next question for me; was Israel learned in astronomy?

Dan 1:17 As for these four young men, Elohim gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom.


Dan 1:20 And in any word of wisdom and understanding about which the sovereign examined them, he found them ten times better than all the magicians, the astrologers,


Job 38:31 Do you bind the bands of Kimah, or loosen the cords of Kesil? (KJV - Pleiades & Orion)

Job 38:32 Do you bring out the constellations (H4216) in its season? Or do you lead the Bear (Ursa Major) with its sons?

Job 38:33 Do you know the laws of the heavens? Or do you set their rule over the earth?



מזּרה mazzârâh, maz-zaw-raw'

Apparently from H5144 in the sense of distinction; some noted constellation (only in the plural), perhaps collectively the zodiac: - Mazzoroth. Compare H4208.

It looks like they were very familiar with the stars in the heavens even naming the stars and constellations.

From 119 ministries:

The reality is that in an agricultural sense, a farming community had to watch for such signs to determine the growing seasons.


 Something Josette and I are well aware of doing.


It is of no coincidence that the Spring feasts begin at first fruits (of the harvests), and that the Fall feasts conclude with the end of harvest.

Both of these appointed times fall directly after the signs in the heavens, by the stars.

The Spring feasts occur in the spring on or after the Spring equinox.

The Fall feasts occur in the fall, on or close after the Fall equinox.

In Exodus 34:22 we read that the Feast of Sukkot is to occur at the year’s end.

Exodus 34:22 You shall observe the Feast of Weeks, the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the year's end (tequphah).

The Hebrew word for “year’s end” here literally means “turn” or “circuit” (tequphah) of the “year” (shaneh).


I have always been interested in astronomy, but not 'till I became interested in farming, have I really made the connection (getting up before the sun, on clear mornings, will do that).

The practical difference between sighted crescent and conjunction is a difference of 1-3 days, and the 1-3 days is enough to throw off every appointed day if one is using the incorrect method...

David (and Jonathan confirmed it) knew exactly when the new moon would arrive.


1Sa 20:5 And Dawiḏ said to Yehonathan, “See, tomorrow is the New Moon, and I ought to sit with the sovereign to eat. But let me go, and I shall hide in the field until the third day at evening.

1Sa 20:18 So Yehonathan said to him, “Tomorrow is the New Moon, and you shall be missed, because your seat shall be empty.

1Sa 20:19And on the third day, go down quickly and you shall come to the place where you hid on the day of the deed, and shall remain by the stone Ětsel.

Neither one of them said, “If the New Moon is sighted”.

Look at this from 1 Samuel, the second day of the new moon?


1 Samuel 20:27 It came about the next day, the second day of the new moon, that David’s place was empty; so Saul said to Jonathan his son, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to the meal, either yesterday or today?” (NASB)


1 Samuel 20:34 Then Jonathan arose from the table in fierce anger, and did not eat food on the second day of the new moon, for he was grieved over David because his father had dishonored him. (NASB)


The time between the conjunction and the visible crescent is 1-3 days. If it's sighted it's only one day.


For those who hold to a crescent only view, the question must be asked, where is the second day? Where is the third evening? How would that even work with what we just read in 1 Samuel?


Why would a new month celebration last for up to several days with a lunar sighting only perspective? If you go by crescent the new month would begin when the moon was sighted and conclude the following evening. Right?...


The conjunction established the first day of the month, and they waited till the sighting of the crescent to confirm that the conjunction happened as expected.


That can take anywhere from 1-3 days, whereas the sighting only method is always just one day.


Now look at this passage in Amos...


Amo 8:5 saying, “When does the New Moon pass so that we sell grain, and the Sabbath so that we trade our wheat, to make the ĕphah small and the sheqel large, and to falsify the scales by deceit,

Obviously, they were waiting for the new moon (most likely Yom Teruah) to end so they could buy & sell!!! If the new moon was based on sighting would they not know that Sundown would end the new moon?

Creation Began in darkness

The day begins in darkness

Life begins in darkness

Abba appears in thick clouds & darkness

 There are, oddly, no references to seeing, sighting or observing a sliver, or missing or delaying a feast due to not sighting the moon.

Indeed, darkness is very important to Yahweh.

The covenant with Abraham was made in darkness (Genesis 15:7); Passover took place in darkness (Exodus 12:12); Yahshua rose in the dark (John 20:1).

In fact, Yahweh dwells in darkness (Exodus 20:21, 1 Kings 8:12, Psalm 18:11), and the very creation itself began in darkness, (Genesis 1:2), and ends in darkness (Revelation 20:11).


We do not start off in our lives giving light…we start off in our lives in darkness, until we begin to reflect His light by coming into the faith.


Remember, Yahshua came in the darkness, and the Light started to shine:


Think about it this way.


The moon reflects light and has no real light of its own.


Isn’t that just like us?


We reflect His light, as we have no real light of our own. His light is His Word.


This is why the Day of Trumpets has to be on conjunction.


The Day of Trumpets is when the shofar is to sound, to cause all to wake up from the darkness that they are in, and lead them to the full light of Sukkot when the Messiah dwells with us.


Do you see how the physical teaches us the spiritual?


This totally dovetails into Yah's practical nature. Study the plagues, you could say each plague begat the next. ie. Waters turned to blood, then the frogs left the rivers, then the frogs died & turned to maggots, the maggots became flies etc...


One more thing concerning the sighted moon, many sighted moon followers rely on Kariates' sighting.


If you are not aware, they are very hostile towards believers. Why should we as believers in Messiah, trust anything Nehemiah Gordon and the Kariates have to say? I've read their reasoning for using the sliver moon and find it incorrect and deceptive. (See Below)

They state Babylonians used sun, moon stars 1000 years after Moses (circa 1500 BCE). This is not true. Ancient 365 day calendars found circa 4200 BCE prove otherwise.





The earliest Egyptian calendar was based on the moon’s cycles, but the lunar calendar failed to predict a critical event in their lives: the annual flooding of the Nile river. The Egyptians soon noticed that the first day the "Dog Star," which we call Sirius, in Canis Major was visible right before sunrise was special. The Egyptians were probably the first to adopt a mainly solar calendar. This so-called ‘heliacal rising’ always preceded the flood by a few days. Based on this knowledge, they devised a 365-day calendar that seems to have begun in 4236 B.C.E., the earliest recorded year in history.


From Karaite

It has been suggested that the ancient Israelites could have looked at the "Old Moon" and determined the Day of Conjunction by when the Old Moon was no longer visible in the morning sky. However, such a method would not work in the Middle East where the so-called "concealed moon" can remain concealed for as many as 3.5 days! It is in fact common for the moon to stay concealed for 2.5 days and in such instances how would the ancient Israelites have known which day was the Day of Conjunction?
In contrast, the ancient Israelites would have been well aware of the Crescent New Moon. In ancient societies people worked from dawn to dusk and they would have noticed the Old Moon getting smaller and smaller in the morning sky. When the morning moon had disappeared the ancient Israelites would have anxiously awaited its reappearance 1.5-3.5 days later in the evening sky. Having disappeared for several days and then appearing anew in the early evening sky they would have called it the "New Moon" or "Hodesh" (from Hadash meaning "New").


Did you catch that? They use same logic discounting conjunction as they use proving sliver. (If you are conjunction you can't count the days by seeing the old moon, but you CAN count the days by using the old moon to calculate when the sliver will appear.) Huh?


One final note, I did not find the word sliver in any translation, I did find 2 instances in Scriptures 98 where the word crescent was used:


Jdg 8:21 Then Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna said, “Rise yourself, and fall on us. For as a man is, so is his might.” So Giḏʽon arose and slew Zeḇaḥ and Tsalmunna, and took the crescent (H7720) ornaments which were on their camels’ necks.

Isa 3:16 And יהוה says, “Because the daughters of Tsiyon are haughty, and walk with outstretched necks and seductive eyes, walking and mincing as they go, making a jingling with their feet, 

Isa 3:17 therefore יהוה shall smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Tsiyon, and יהוה expose their nakedness.

Isa 3:18 In that day יהוה takes away the finery of the anklets, and the headbands, and the crescents, (H7720)


 H7720 שׂהרן śahărôn

BDB Definition:

1) moon, crescent

1a) as ornament

This study was not done to harass or be critical of sighted crescent believers. I said at the beginning I wanted to be on the same days, aligned with my beloved brothers & sisters. If there is something I've missed or have false information of, please correct me.


With much Awhab & Shalom,

Bro. Glenn

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